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The Star
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Genre: Animation Timothy Reckart User ratings: 6,7 / 10 countries: USA Writer: Carlos Kotkin. Why does the star represent Hanukkah. What color is the star lesath.

The strawberry alarm clock. Hope, inspiration, creativity, calm, contentment, renewal, serenity, spirituality, healing, positivity The Star Upright Meaning Guide The Star Tarot Card Key Meanings: General meaning and interpretation  (Upright) In a general context, The Star indicates hope for the future, inspiration and contentment. With this Major Arcana card in your Tarot spread you will find yourself feeling very positive, motivated and free. You will be feeling very serene and in tune with the universe as The Star is a card of spiritual connection. The Star is a very positive omen. It is the period of calm and stability that follows the storm that was The Tower. The Star indicates that you have come through your tough times with a renewed sense of yourself and the world around you, you are full of calm, well-balanced energy and you are open to healing the wounds of the past. Whatever mental, emotional, physical or spiritual issues you were experiencing are now behind you and you are ready to embrace what your future holds. Trust that the universe has a plan for you and trust the feeling you have that everything is going to be OK.  You will be feeling confident in yourself and people will like you for who you are with this card in your Tarot reading. The Star can also indicate creativity and artistic flair, so now would be a great time to take up an artistic hobby. Love & Relationships  (Upright) The Star in a love Tarot reading can indicate a relationship with an Aquarius. If you are single, The Star is an indicator that you are ready to let go of any baggage you have been carrying from past relationships. Your future love life looks positive and now is a great time to meet people. It can also signify someone from your past coming back into your life to rekindle a relationship. If you are in a relationship the Star is a sign that your relationship will be progressing into something deeper. If you have had problems in the relationship previously, The Star tells you that these issues can be healed and you can have a bright future if you open yourself up to healing. Money & Career  (Upright) The Star in a career context indicates that you will have great opportunities coming your way in terms of work. If you have been waiting to find out the outcome of a promotion or job interview, The Star is very positive sign that things are going to go in your favour or something even better is going to come your way. It can also be an indicator that you would do well in a more creative role. You may be feeling very creatively inspired with The Star in your Tarot reading. Financially speaking, if you have been having money issues, The Star tells you that there is a way to get your finances in check. Now is a good time to make investments, within reason, as The Star in an upright position, signifies your finances moving in a positive direction. Health  (Upright) If you have been having health issues, The Star indicates that you are coming into a time of great healing. It can be a signifier for good health and for health issues being resolved in a positive way. Or it can simply signify that you will be feeling much more hopeful about your future health. Spirituality  (Upright) In a spiritual context, The Star is a great omen. It indicates that you will be very in tune with the spirit world. If you are interested in psychic development, you may find that you come on in leaps and bounds with the Star in your Tarot reading. Its also a great time to get involved in energy or healing work as you should be very open to healing at the moment. Reversed Meaning Guide The Star Reversed Tarot Card Key Meanings: Hopelessness, despair, focusing on the negative, lack of faith, lack of inspiration, lack of creativity, boredom, monotony General meaning and interpretation  (Reversed) The Star in a reversed position can indicate that you are feeling hopeless. Perhaps the difficult situations you have been through in the past have drained you of your lust for life and your faith in the universes plan for you. The Star reversed does not indicate that things are hopeless, only that you feel they are. You need to take responsibility for yourself and your attitude to life. You may want to consider seeking some professional counselling to help you heal the wounds of the past and leave them where they belong. The Star can signify that you have lost your confidence, your belief in yourself and your trust in your own abilities. This Major Arcana card can also be an indication of feeling anxious and overwhelmed. A change of attitude is needed to resolve this not necessarily a change of circumstances. Dont allow yourself to continue to play the victim if you have long since left the situation in which you were victimised. The Star is telling you that its time to heal the past, draw a line under it and move forward. Seek support to do this if you need to. You can do anything you set your mind to, you just have to believe in yourself and focus on the positive. Start small and try to find one or two things to be grateful for in each day. A creative outlet might also be helpful to you if you are artistically inclined. Rediscover your creative side, it will help you heal. Love & Relationships  (Reversed) If you are in a relationship, The Star reversed indicates that you may have lost faith in the relationship or are focusing on the negative and missing the positive aspects of your relationship. Your relationship may have lost some of its spark, you may feel that the relationship has become stagnant and monotonous and that you and your partner have disconnected on some level. The Star reversed tells you that these problems can be fixed but you have to be prepared to heal old wounds and clear out any negative energy from the relationship if you want to go forward. If you are single, The Star reversed indicates loneliness and lack of faith in the universes plan for you. You may be feeling like you will never meet the right person for you. You may feel that you are becoming cynical about love. You need to release your fears and let go of the negative energy youve been holding on to in order to move forward. Love will appear when you least expect it! Money & Career  (Reversed) In a career Tarot spread, The Star reversed indicates that you may be feeling bored in your career or feel that you are stuck in a career that is going nowhere. Monotony has set in and you no longer feel the creative spark or enthusiasm you once had. You need to change your attitude and start focusing on the positive. Things are not as bad as they seem and anything you are unhappy with is within your power to change. The Star reversed can also indicate that you are not using your creativity and are letting your talents go to waste. In a financial context, if your finances have not been going well, The Star reversed tells you that any problems are within your power to change. Reassess your financial plans in light of any recent changes in your circumstances and ask yourself are these plans still working for you and will they get you what you want? If not, look at what you can do to change them to suit your current circumstances. Dont let anxiety over money overwhelm you, its not all doom and gloom! Things are not as bad as you think they are. Health  (Reversed) In a health context, The Star reversed can indicate that your health is not all that bad but any issues you have will be magnified by your anxiety and pessimism at the moment. You may be worrying about your health and blowing any symptoms way out of proportion rather than going for a simple check-up. Try to focus on the positive. If you are worried about a health issue, go and get it checked by a doctor to put your mind at ease. Energy healing may be beneficial to you at the moment to boost your health and help you to let go of any negative energy youre holding onto. Spirituality  (Reversed) The Star reversed in a spiritual context shows that you have lost faith in the universe. You may feel like you are disconnected from spirit and you may be looking upon the difficulties you have faced in the past as an indication that you are doomed. Remember, the universe loves you. Even when you are going through terribly tough times, it is simply the universe giving you an opportunity to learn and grow. Reconnect to your spiritual side and try to find something to be grateful for in each day. You will not believe the difference such a small change can make to your outlook on life. Want to keep learning the meaning of the Tarot cards with The Tarot Guide? Continue to the next card... Or check out the rest of the Major Arcana or Minor Arcana in The Tarot Guide for free tarot meanings online.

Privacy Policy Terms of use Accessibility Copyright Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd. 1996 - 2020 The Toronto Star and, each property of Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, One Yonge Street, 4th floor, Toronto, ON, M5E 1E6. The star kenya. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you're not a robot. For best results, please make sure your browser is accepting cookies. Type the characters you see in this image: Try different image Conditions of Use Privacy Policy 1996-2014, Inc. or its affiliates. The starch solution. I wonder how beautiful these all things will look in real. 😍😍I can watch all these things every day. What is the star signs.


This child just wants to go to school, this broke my heart. He is very smart and strong! I pray that people buy from him.

Saddest video on YouTube. Kansas City Breaking News, Crime & Sports, The Kansas City Star Skip to Content Home News Sports Politics Opinion Super Bowl LIV A Chiefs party 50 years coming: ‘Like a fantasy, and it all came true. Kansas City Chiefs wide receiver Demarcus Robinson (11) holds the Vince Lombardi Trophy after winning Super Bowl 54 against the San Francisco 49ers at Hard Rock Stadium on Sunday, February 2, 2020 in Miami Gardens, Florida. Al Diaz SportsBeat KC: Just how did the amazing comeback Chiefs win the Super Bowl? February 03, 2020 12:10 PM On the way to the worst game of his career, Patrick Mahomes wins Super Bowl MVP February 02, 2020 11:22 PM Chiefs had to suffer through dark moments before finally winning it all Sunday February 02, 2020 10:36 PM Chiefs Chiefs championship was not a dream. Super Bowl win is gift that keeps on giving From Mahomes to Mathieu to Reid, Hunt and a former prisoner of war, this championship is for everyone in Chiefs Kingdom. February 03, 2020 11:25 AM Cityscape Super Bowl swag: Kansas City shoppers cant get enough. Heres what you need to know. February 03, 2020 1:00 PM Crime Commercial-grade fireworks kill fan celebrating Kansas City Chiefs Super Bowl win February 03, 2020 11:52 AM For Pete's Sake Travis Kelce shared a video from Chiefs team bus after Super Bowl LIV victory February 03, 2020 9:29 AM Local Schools cancel classes to allow students, staff to celebrate Chiefs Super Bowl win February 03, 2020 8:56 AM National Super Bowl celebration in Kansas City was so big it showed up on weather radar February 03, 2020 7:36 AM Editorials Should KC be offended that Trump thinks Chiefs are from the ‘Great State of Kansas? February 03, 2020 11:11 AM Latest Rush Limbaugh says hes been diagnosed with lung cancer February 03, 2020 2:29 PM Triple H sends this WWE championship belt to Chiefs for use in Super Bowl parade February 03, 2020 2:04 PM A day later, Chiefs Andy Reid, Patrick Mahomes still absorbing Super Bowl victory February 03, 2020 1:03 PM Trump trial closing arguments aim at voters, history February 03, 2020 12:41 PM More in Latest Len Dawson and Patrick Mahomes: Two quarterbacks who led Chiefs to Super Bowl in different eras January 29, 2020 5:53 PM Snow, not rain, might fall upon the Kansas City Chiefs Super Bowl victory parade, celebration February 03, 2020 2:25 PM Fans celebrate, fireworks light up Kansas City as the Chiefs win Super Bowl LIV February 02, 2020 9:38 PM View more videos Local News at Your Fingertips Get unlimited digital access for just 3. 99 a month to #ReadLocal anytime, on any device. GET OFFER Chiefs Patrick Mahomes tweets video encapsulating his road to a Super Bowl title February 03, 2020 11:12 AM More in Sports After Super Bowl victory, Josh Hawley introduces Senate resolution to honor the Chiefs February 03, 2020 10:13 AM More in Local Video media Created with Sketch. Nation & world Heres where Vegas odds put the Democratic candidates ahead of the Iowa caucuses February 03, 2020 10:35 AM Joe Biden receives surge of support from donors of former 2020 rivals February 02, 2020 4:00 AM More in Nation & World Chiefs win the Super Bowl, but this team won Kansas Citys heart long ago February 02, 2020 9:17 PM Will licenses to grow and sell medical marijuana in Missouri go to the highest bidder? February 03, 2020 5:00 AM Electricity customers in Kansas and Missouri could be the losers in battle over Evergy More in Opinion In Depth ‘Can I afford staying in Kansas? Soaring property taxes prompt calls for state help Property taxes are too high, Kansas politicians agree. How to help homeowners is another matter. Blogs & Columns Here is how newspapers across the country covered Chiefs Super Bowl victory February 03, 2020 10:33 AM Trending stories Trump congratulates Chiefs for representing ‘the Great State of Kansas February 02, 2020 9:51 PM Kansas City to hold Chiefs Super Bowl parade on Wednesday, with rally downtown President Trump tweets Super Bowl congratulations to Chiefs — and the state of Kansas February 02, 2020 9:42 PM Photo gallery: Chiefs fans endure roller coaster ride to Super Bowl victory February 03, 2020 3:19 AM Photo gallery: Chiefs fans get fired up for Super Bowl at pep rally in Miami February 01, 2020 11:21 PM McClatchy editorial cartoons for the week of Jan. 27, 2020 January 31, 2020 3:22 PM View all galleries Music News & Reviews Miranda Lambert, coming to KC, doesnt mean to offend. Shes ‘a little too honest Country music star Miranda Lambert will perform at the Sprint Center in Kansas City in support of her latest album, “Wildcard. ” She talks about Nashville, New York, her music, her two marriages and fame. More in Music News & Reviews Entertainment ‘I was up until 4 a. m. last night. Shakira and JLo spill details on Half Time show January 30, 2020 2:14 PM More in Entertainment Books She wanted to write about the night she was raped. So she interviewed her rapist January 31, 2020 5:00 AM More in Books Copyright Commenting Policy Privacy Policy Terms of Service.

And the anxiety begins. More from The Star ANCYL slams Judge Dhaya Pillay over Jacob Zumas warrant of arrest The ANCYL's national task team has slammed Judge Dhaya Pillay for rejecting a sick note presented by former President Jacob Zuma to prove that he is sick, hence unable to come to court. 10h ago, Politics Absa enlists help of guide dogs to assist visually impaired clients at ATMs South African Guide-Dogs Association for the Blind and Absa formalised a relationship that will see guide dogs undergo training to assist visually impaired customers at ATMs 10h ago, News Teen, 16, accused of shooting and killing his grandfather during heated argument At some point during the argument, the teenager allegedly went to his grandfather's room, grabbed a pellet gun, went to the grandfather and shot him outside their flat. 11h ago, News What to do when your company is restructuring When a company announces a restructure the first to experience the pressure are the employees, says the writer. 12h ago, Opinion & Analysis.

It contains the star Altair. The star child. No officer, I wasn't looking at the stars, I was looking at the space between the stars. Then why did I see you gazing up at that reddish one, there? Officer. that's Mars... Gome drama the starry night sub indo. “shoot for the moon. even if you miss you'll land among the stars”.

God help you. Who named the star Betelgeuse. Does the star aldorande exist. Where is the star cave. Toronto 2030 Toronto is facing a shortage of skilled workers. A North Carolina experiment may be the solution to bridging the talent gap As Toronto heads toward megacity status, the types of workers we need are changing. How governments, industry and schools can work together to ensure peoples skills match the citys needs by 2030. What color is the star Denebola. What is the starting salary for a Lawyer. Fracas as woman demands child upkeep from MP Kutuny "Scene was visited and situation controlled. 2h ago STAR REPORTER Top 5 @ 5: Kutuny child support drama, celebrity elephant. The stories making headlines on the Star this evening. 9m ago STAR EDITOR News Migori pupil chokes to death as he tries to swallow mandazi Fellow colleagues reported that the deceased could not talk and was gasping for breath. 1h ago Manuel Odeny News Tim, the celebrity elephant with massive tusks, dies at 50 Tim died in Mada area of Amboseli National Park at the age of 50. 51m ago GILBERT KOECH News Mzee Moi never feared death, Gideon says "Mzee always told me that to accept life you must accept death. he said. 2h ago NANCY AGUTU News Garissa risks losing county property over Sh221. 3m debt Takaful Insurance says it suffered massive losses after county defaulted on payment of. 38m ago FAITH NYASUGUTA North Eastern Inside Mzee Mois business empire List of property, investments owned or co-owned by the family and its partners is endless. 23h ago MARTIN MWITA News WATCH EPL LIVE Magoha feels heat after 'insensitive. 12h ago Corridors of Power Ex-UoN official behind top leadership war? 1d ago Corridors of Power Kakamega pupils were in class four and five - School 2h ago News The president's children: the Moi siblings 9h ago News Moi's 4-month fight for his life in hospital 12h ago News Moi was the father of devolution - CoG vice chair Wa Iria 3h ago News Moi was tough but made decisions at the right time - Orengo 4h ago News Kenyan-based one-handed photographer: I prove people wrong 5h ago Africa Magoha feels heat after 'insensitive' Kakamega school remark 12h ago Corridors of Power Health cover vital but oft neglected Most people dont know why its important to buy medical insurance, how it works. 13h ago Nixon Shigoli Gender parity rattles boy-child Tokenism should not be the lot of this majority. 13h ago Columnists OKECH KENDO Long-term mental effects of FGM not addressed enough Girls who have undergone the process have episodes of depression. 17h ago Star Blogs Venoranda Rebecca Kuboka Duty to reform the nation lies solely on Wanjiku–not BBI All of citizens' demands cannot be collected at a rally, report not people-driven. 17h ago Star Blogs John Ouma Long-term mental effects of FGM not addressed enough Girls who have undergone the process have episodes of depression. 17h ago Star Blogs John Ouma Schools should have crowd control policy for emergencies Death of 14 pupils of Kakamega school would have been saved with order at the stairs. 17h ago Star Blogs EDWIN KARIUKI Cars for Sale Jobs Properties for Rent Properties for Sale Services Pets Most Popular Magoha feels heat after 'insensitive. 12h ago Corridors of Power Mt Kenya: History will repeat itself in 2022 1d ago Columnists Raila's BBI remark shocks Kenyans 2d ago Corridors of Power Ex-UoN official behind top leadership war? 1d ago Corridors of Power Furious MP storms TSC offices over teacher shortage 19h ago North Eastern WhatsApp to stop working on millions of phones 3d ago Technology Most Watched Cartoon 05 February 2020 Sign up for the free Star email newsletter and receive the latest Kenya news daily. PS: Please sign up again if your subscription recently stopped unexpectedly. World Trump hails 'American comeback' in Congress speech House Speaker Nancy Pelosi ripped up a copy of his speech behind him. 7h ago BBC NEWS World China accuses US of whipping up panic over coronavirus 2d ago World Recording shows Iran 'knew it had shot down plane' 2d ago World Somalia declares emergency over locust swarms 2d ago World Big Read Tiny lump that changed my life - cancer survivor Some 32, 000 out of 47, 000 Kenyans who get cancer every year die from the disease 1d ago MARTIN FUNDI Big Read Your risk of getting cancer 1d ago Big Read Desert locusts: Aerial spraying threatens useful insects 2d ago Big Read Wandayi: The PAC chair who got counties set for Sh100bn more 2d ago Big Read Counties Garissa risks losing county property over Sh221. 38m ago FAITH NYASUGUTA North Eastern Migori pupil chokes to death as he tries to swallow mandazi 1h ago News Kitui Kanu leaders join Kenyans in mourning Moi 18h ago Counties Floods wreak havoc in Nyanza counties, driving thousands. 19h ago Nyanza SASA Mzungu Kichaa marks 10 years in music industry He is using the occasion to reintroduce himself 17h ago ELIZABETH MUSYIMI Word Is Celebrities pay tribute to late President Moi 17h ago Word Is Ben Pol, Gucci Mane collabo loading? 17h ago Word Is Layonn debuts the year with 'You Are' 17h ago Word Is How English, French and Arabic easily blend in Algeria Last week in Algiers I had a unique opportunity to watch language in action. Our hosts were the most modern GSM. 13h ago CHRIS HARRISON KRA starts crackdown on water, soft drinks The taxman has commenced its operation with major retail stores and supermarkets across. 13h ago MARTIN MWITA Kenya Business community in Kenya mourns Moi Business magnate Cris Kirubi said Kenya has lost a statesman and servant leader. 13h ago VICTOR AMADALA Kenya Financial institutions urged to invest in cybersecurity Praises African countries for technological advancement, especially on cloud computing. 18h ago Laura Cheptarus Business MILK PRICES 19h ago Kenya Government sets new rules for taxi hailing. 23h ago News Inside Mzee Mois business empire 23h ago News East Africa business community mourns Moi 1d ago Kenya Shilling strengthen on interest rate cap scrap Commercial banks quoted the shilling at an average of 102. 50 yesterday 2mo ago Markets ELIZABETH KIVUVA [PHOTOS] Butichi casts his vote amid low turn out Low turn out has been witnessed in Kibra constituency 2mo ago News KEVIN CHERUIYOT and BENJAMIN IMENDE Why banks setting interest rates is good for Kenya - Duale Duale said the capping Bill of 2016 has negatively affected the economy. 2mo ago News KEVIN CHERUIYOT How English, French and Arabic easily blend. 13h ago Commentary Why you need to guard your online footprint •Fingerprinting is used by advertisers to track your online activities letting them build. 2d ago Commentary CHARLES OKWEMBAH How ethics affects business performance For Africa to truly move forward, entrepreneurs and business leaders must see the need. 5d ago Commentary SAMUEL MPAMUGOSamuelMpamugo Central Bank Cryptocurrencies Central banks have shifted their policy from the opposition of digital currencies, to. 6d ago Commentary KAREN KANDIE Affordable housing project attracts Sh3. 8mo ago Living Spaces World Bank housing loan to lock out poor Kenyans The facility will allow borrowers to repay the loan at between three, seven and 15 years. 8mo ago Living Spaces VICTOR AMADALA Landlords stare at empty rooms as demand drops Empty residential houses in Lavington, General Mathenge Road and TRM 10mo ago Living Spaces VICTOR AMADALA Saudi sacks housing minister as shortage bites Saudi Arabias King Salman replaced the housing minister last week after pledging to. 4yr ago Living Spaces REUTERS Sakwa to lead newly elected NSL Governing council office Nine matches will be played this weekend, with promotion chase taking shape. 7m ago FRANCIS WADEGU Newly formed university league attract 10 teams Mavisi played in the Premier league with Strathmore University and varsity basketball at. 12m ago STEFFANY NDEI Sports South African coaches to help Kenya U- 20 in preps for. Chipu who are the defending champions will open their campaign against Zambia. 12h ago WILLIAM NJUGUNA Sports Leopards, Tusker dealt blow as match venues are switched Title chasing KCB and Kariobangi Sharks were also set to be affected by the. 12h ago MESHACK KISENGE Football Omuse ditches bankers for league champion GSU 12h ago Sports CS Amina, AK and Nock lead sports fraternity in mourning Moi 12h ago Sports NO pain, no gain for 'Hit Squad' boxing team 12h ago Boxing Sampdoria fightback in vain as Napoli snatch late goals 17h ago Football McIlroy to return to world number one 17h ago Golf Russias suspended federation officials resign amid scandal 17h ago Athletics City need to win Champions League for successful season. 17h ago Football Serena needs to ‘face reality, says coach Mouratoglou 17h ago Tennis I can beat Hamilton with the right car, says Verstappen 17h ago Sports Sakwa to lead newly elected NSL Governing council office Nine matches will be played this weekend, with promotion chase taking shape. 7m ago Football FRANCIS WADEGU Newly formed university league attract 10 teams Mavisi played in the Premier league with Strathmore University and varsity basketball at. 12m ago Sports STEFFANY NDEI South African coaches to help Kenya U- 20 in preps for. 12h ago Sports WILLIAM NJUGUNA Leopards, Tusker dealt blow as match venues are switched Title chasing KCB and Kariobangi Sharks were also set to be affected by the. 12h ago Football MESHACK KISENGE Omuse ditches bankers for league champion GSU Baldev Chager and Ravi Soni-Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution 12h ago Sports CONSOLATA MAKOKHA CS Amina, AK and Nock lead sports fraternity in mourning Moi N0C-K said this being an Olympic year, they will work hard to pay fitting tribute to Mzee. 12h ago Sports BY FRANCIS WADEGU Editor's Pick A garbage mountain overlooks traders selling foodstuffs at Muthurwa Market. ANDREW KASUKU Moi at Sunshine Secondary school BBI: Moment Of Truth BBI retains powerful President who appoints Prime Minister BBI team says its report contains proposals in line with the views presented by Kenyans. 2mo ago OLIVER MATHENGE News Inside the radical proposals of the BBI team Team recommends return of Prime Minister with limited powers. 2mo ago FELIX OLICK News IEBC's new look under BBI Chairperson to be handed more powers by doubling up as the Commission's CEO. 2mo ago KEVIN CHERUIYOT News BBI proposes MP, MCA sitting allowances be abolished High Court reinstated perks last year after the SRC scrapped them in 2017. 2mo ago GIDEON KETER News Nine key issues BBI report addresses Uhuru has invited 100 leaders from 47 counties for public release on Wednesday. 2mo ago LYNDSAY NYAWIRA News BBI proposals will not lead to a referendum – Duale Says referendum will definitely be divisive, with winners and losers. 2mo ago PATRICK VIDIJA News BBI: Lock civil servants out of state tenders Team recommends annual wealth declaration forms by public and state officers be made. 2mo ago GIDEON KETER News How Uhuru-Raila power struggle birthed BBI The BBI team was tasked, through public participation, to propose lasting solutions. 2mo ago NANCY AGUTU News Uhuru: We are coming to the ground with BBI To traverse the country to rally support for the Building Bridges Initiative report. 3mo ago GEORGE OWITI AND GIBLERT KOECH News Anxiety across political divide ahead of BBI report release Murathe has accused Ruto and his allies of wanting to dictate the BBI outcome. 4mo ago IMENDE BENJAMIN News BBI is a historic moment for honest debate on Kenyas future BBI should not be seen as a political campaign. 2mo ago Kingori Choto Star Blogs Ruto to Raila: Tell BBI changes you need Ruto says BBI meant only to appease Opposition chief Raila. 4mo ago STAR REPORTER AND DPPS News We'll reject BBI if it frustrates devolution - Ruto allies Leaders questioned if the BBI team got genuine views from Kenyans. 3mo ago KEVIN CHERUIYOT News Publish BBI report swiftly, say Mt Kenya bosses Sharp reactions from Mt Kenya over the BBI signal unease in the President's backyard. 3mo ago JAMES MBAKA News Uhuru on BBI: I don't want a post, I'm tired BBI will ensure that Kenyans do not spill blood anymore, Uhuru said. 3mo ago NANCY AGUTU News Raila to Ruto: Don't get jittery over BBI report Raila criticized Ruto and his allies for rejecting the BBI report before its made public. 3mo ago ALPHONCE GARI News How BBI became Uhuru's poisoned chalice Ever since its formation, the BBI has become the target of political pun. 3mo ago OCHIENG' KANYADUDI Siasa Mt Kenya legislators vow to reject parliamentary system The leaders will hold a meeting after BBI releases its findings and state their position. 3mo ago JULIUS OTIENO News 10 politicians turn heat on Ruto over BBI remarks Proponents of BBI irked by Ruto's remarks on the initiative. 4mo ago ALLAN KISIA News Delayed BBI report release triggers jitters Silem murmurs in Raila's camp that Uhuru's backyard could be in a discrete plan to reject. 2mo ago JAMES MBAKA Siasa President Uhuru's BBI headache President faces dilemma over releasing BBI report and massive backyard rebellion. 2mo ago JAMES MBAKA News BBI report to be made public on Wednesday BBI taskforce concluded its findings last month. 2mo ago KEVIN CHERUIYOT News BBI: Big win for women eyeing governor positions Governor and deputy governor should be of the opposite sex 2mo ago ALLAN KISIA News Counties to get 35% of national revenue in BBI proposal Counties should be maintained as the focus of development implementation. 2mo ago ALLAN KISIA News Ruto, Raila on the side of peace, back BBI They have been seen to be on the opposite sides of the handshake. 2mo ago OLIVER MATHENGE News December 26 proposed as National Culture Day Day to be set aside to celebrate Kenyas diverse cultures 2mo ago GIDEON KETER News Tax base to become broader if BBI proposals adopted However, it recommends overall tax be made low. 2mo ago ALLAN KISIA News THE STAR DATA HUB Mercury, lead found in sukuma wiki samples You are better off buying sukuma wiki from local market than Supermarket. 8mo ago AGATHA NGOTHO Star Farmer EXCLUSIVE: When poor planning increases pollution Walkabout with a mobile sensor showed serious levels of air pollution 10mo ago PATRICK VIDIJA Watchdog EXCLUSIVE: Sickening water rocks three counties Lab tests by the Star have established high levels of bacteria. 10mo ago PATRICK VIDIJA Watchdog Mukuru fumes put 60 asthma patients a month in hospital As we wait to be let into Maendeleo Learning Centre, smoke drifts over from the chimney. 1yr ago By PATRICK VIDIJA @vidijapatrick Watchdog.

How the star form. About the Show "The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon" made its debut from Studio 6B in Rockefeller Center on Feb. 17, 2014. Emmy Award- and Grammy Award-winning comedian Jimmy Fallon brings a high-tempo energy to the storied NBC franchise with his welcoming interview style, love of audience participation, spot-on impersonations and innovative sketches. For almost 60 years, The Tonight Show" has been an American television institution home to big-name celebrity guests and top musical and comedic talent. Taking a cue from predecessors, including hosts Johnny Carson and Jay Leno, Fallon carries on the tradition audiences know and love. Known for his huge online presence, Fallon also brings along many popular segments, celeb sketches and musical parodies that fans have grown to love on "Late Night. including Hashtags, Thank You Notes and Slow Jam the News. The critically praised Grammy-winning group The Roots serves as "The Tonight Show" house band. From Universal Television and Broadway Video, The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon" is executive produced by Lorne Michaels. It tapes before a live studio audience. More.

The star frisco restaurants. Yahusha didn't die on a Friday. He died on a Wednesday, on Passover. Passover is a High Sabbath. 3 Days & 3 Nights later, He raised Himself from Death on the 1st Day. 1 day after the regular Sabbath. What is the Star Wars series order. This article is about the astronomical object. For other uses, see Star (disambiguation. A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations. The observable Universe contains an estimated 1 × 10 24 stars, 1] 2] but most are invisible to the naked eye from Earth, including all stars outside our galaxy, the Milky Way. For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star's interior and then radiates into outer space. Almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stellar nucleosynthesis during the star's lifetime, and for some stars by supernova nucleosynthesis when it explodes. Near the end of its life, a star can also contain degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age, metallicity (chemical composition) and many other properties of a star by observing its motion through space, its luminosity, and spectrum respectively. The total mass of a star is the main factor that determines its evolution and eventual fate. Other characteristics of a star, including diameter and temperature, change over its life, while the star's environment affects its rotation and movement. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities produces a plot known as a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (H–R diagram. Plotting a particular star on that diagram allows the age and evolutionary state of that star to be determined. A star's life begins with the gravitational collapse of a gaseous nebula of material composed primarily of hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements. When the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes steadily converted into helium through nuclear fusion, releasing energy in the process. [3] The remainder of the star's interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radiative and convective heat transfer processes. The star's internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity. A star with mass greater than 0. 4 times the Sun's will expand to become a red giant when the hydrogen fuel in its core is exhausted. [4] In some cases, it will fuse heavier elements at the core or in shells around the core. As the star expands it throws a part of its mass, enriched with those heavier elements, into the interstellar environment, to be recycled later as new stars. [5] Meanwhile, the core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or, if it is sufficiently massive, a black hole. Binary and multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are gravitationally bound and generally move around each other in stable orbits. When two such stars have a relatively close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on their evolution. [6] Stars can form part of a much larger gravitationally bound structure, such as a star cluster or a galaxy. Observation history People have interpreted patterns and images in the stars since ancient times. [7] This 1690 depiction of the constellation of Leo, the lion, is by Johannes Hevelius. [8] The constellation of Leo as it can be seen by the naked eye. Lines have been added. Historically, stars have been important to civilizations throughout the world. They have been part of religious practices and used for celestial navigation and orientation. Many ancient astronomers believed that stars were permanently affixed to a heavenly sphere and that they were immutable. By convention, astronomers grouped stars into constellations and used them to track the motions of the planets and the inferred position of the Sun. [7] The motion of the Sun against the background stars (and the horizon) was used to create calendars, which could be used to regulate agricultural practices. [9] The Gregorian calendar, currently used nearly everywhere in the world, is a solar calendar based on the angle of the Earth's rotational axis relative to its local star, the Sun. The oldest accurately dated star chart was the result of ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC. [10] The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period (c. 1531–1155 BC. 11] The first star catalogue in Greek astronomy was created by Aristillus in approximately 300 BC, with the help of Timocharis. [12] The star catalog of Hipparchus (2nd century BC) included 1020 stars, and was used to assemble Ptolemy 's star catalogue. [13] Hipparchus is known for the discovery of the first recorded nova (new star. 14] Many of the constellations and star names in use today derive from Greek astronomy. In spite of the apparent immutability of the heavens, Chinese astronomers were aware that new stars could appear. [15] In 185 AD, they were the first to observe and write about a supernova, now known as the SN 185. [16] The brightest stellar event in recorded history was the SN 1006 supernova, which was observed in 1006 and written about by the Egyptian astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan and several Chinese astronomers. [17] The SN 1054 supernova, which gave birth to the Crab Nebula, was also observed by Chinese and Islamic astronomers. [18] 19] 20] Medieval Islamic astronomers gave Arabic names to many stars that are still used today and they invented numerous astronomical instruments that could compute the positions of the stars. They built the first large observatory research institutes, mainly for the purpose of producing Zij star catalogues. [21] Among these, the Book of Fixed Stars (964) was written by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, who observed a number of stars, star clusters (including the Omicron Velorum and Brocchi's Clusters) and galaxies (including the Andromeda Galaxy. 22] According to A. Zahoor, in the 11th century, the Persian polymath scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni described the Milky Way galaxy as a multitude of fragments having the properties of nebulous stars, and also gave the latitudes of various stars during a lunar eclipse in 1019. [23] According to Josep Puig, the Andalusian astronomer Ibn Bajjah proposed that the Milky Way was made up of many stars that almost touched one another and appeared to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction from sublunary material, citing his observation of the conjunction of Jupiter and Mars on 500 AH (1106/1107 AD) as evidence. [24] Early European astronomers such as Tycho Brahe identified new stars in the night sky (later termed novae) suggesting that the heavens were not immutable. In 1584, Giordano Bruno suggested that the stars were like the Sun, and may have other planets, possibly even Earth-like, in orbit around them, 25] an idea that had been suggested earlier by the ancient Greek philosophers, Democritus and Epicurus, 26] and by medieval Islamic cosmologists [27] such as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. [28] By the following century, the idea of the stars being the same as the Sun was reaching a consensus among astronomers. To explain why these stars exerted no net gravitational pull on the Solar System, Isaac Newton suggested that the stars were equally distributed in every direction, an idea prompted by the theologian Richard Bentley. [29] The Italian astronomer Geminiano Montanari recorded observing variations in luminosity of the star Algol in 1667. Edmond Halley published the first measurements of the proper motion of a pair of nearby "fixed" stars, demonstrating that they had changed positions since the time of the ancient Greek astronomers Ptolemy and Hipparchus. [25] William Herschel was the first astronomer to attempt to determine the distribution of stars in the sky. During the 1780s, he established a series of gauges in 600 directions and counted the stars observed along each line of sight. From this he deduced that the number of stars steadily increased toward one side of the sky, in the direction of the Milky Way core. His son John Herschel repeated this study in the southern hemisphere and found a corresponding increase in the same direction. [30] In addition to his other accomplishments, William Herschel is also noted for his discovery that some stars do not merely lie along the same line of sight, but are also physical companions that form binary star systems. The science of stellar spectroscopy was pioneered by Joseph von Fraunhofer and Angelo Secchi. By comparing the spectra of stars such as Sirius to the Sun, they found differences in the strength and number of their absorption lines —the dark lines in stellar spectra caused by the atmosphere's absorption of specific frequencies. In 1865, Secchi began classifying stars into spectral types. [31] However, the modern version of the stellar classification scheme was developed by Annie J. Cannon during the 1900s. The first direct measurement of the distance to a star ( 61 Cygni at 11. 4 light-years) was made in 1838 by Friedrich Bessel using the parallax technique. Parallax measurements demonstrated the vast separation of the stars in the heavens. [25] Observation of double stars gained increasing importance during the 19th century. In 1834, Friedrich Bessel observed changes in the proper motion of the star Sirius and inferred a hidden companion. Edward Pickering discovered the first spectroscopic binary in 1899 when he observed the periodic splitting of the spectral lines of the star Mizar in a 104-day period. Detailed observations of many binary star systems were collected by astronomers such as Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve and S. W. Burnham, allowing the masses of stars to be determined from computation of orbital elements. The first solution to the problem of deriving an orbit of binary stars from telescope observations was made by Felix Savary in 1827. [32] The twentieth century saw increasingly rapid advances in the scientific study of stars. The photograph became a valuable astronomical tool. Karl Schwarzschild discovered that the color of a star and, hence, its temperature, could be determined by comparing the visual magnitude against the photographic magnitude. The development of the photoelectric photometer allowed precise measurements of magnitude at multiple wavelength intervals. In 1921 Albert A. Michelson made the first measurements of a stellar diameter using an interferometer on the Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory. [33] Important theoretical work on the physical structure of stars occurred during the first decades of the twentieth century. In 1913, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram was developed, propelling the astrophysical study of stars. Successful models were developed to explain the interiors of stars and stellar evolution. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin first proposed that stars were made primarily of hydrogen and helium in her 1925 PhD thesis. [34] The spectra of stars were further understood through advances in quantum physics. This allowed the chemical composition of the stellar atmosphere to be determined. [35] With the exception of supernovae, individual stars have primarily been observed in the Local Group, 36] and especially in the visible part of the Milky Way (as demonstrated by the detailed star catalogues available for our galaxy. 37] But some stars have been observed in the M100 galaxy of the Virgo Cluster, about 100 million light years from the Earth. [38] In the Local Supercluster it is possible to see star clusters, and current telescopes could in principle observe faint individual stars in the Local Group [39] see Cepheids. However, outside the Local Supercluster of galaxies, neither individual stars nor clusters of stars have been observed. The only exception is a faint image of a large star cluster containing hundreds of thousands of stars located at a distance of one billion light years [40] —ten times further than the most distant star cluster previously observed. In February 2018, astronomers reported, for the first time, a signal of the reionization epoch, an indirect detection of light from the earliest stars formed—about 180 million years after the Big Bang. [41] In April, 2018, astronomers reported the detection of the most distant "ordinary" i. e., main sequence) star, named Icarus (formally, MACS J1149 Lensed Star 1) at 9 billion light-years away from Earth. [42] 43] In May 2018, astronomers reported the detection of the most distant oxygen ever detected in the Universe—and the most distant galaxy ever observed by Atacama Large Millimeter Array or the Very Large Telescope —with the team inferring that the signal was emitted 13. 3 billion years ago (or 500 million years after the Big Bang. They found that the observed brightness of the galaxy is well-explained by a model where the onset of star formation corresponds to only 250 million years after the Universe began, corresponding to a redshift of about 15. [44] Designations The concept of a constellation was known to exist during the Babylonian period. Ancient sky watchers imagined that prominent arrangements of stars formed patterns, and they associated these with particular aspects of nature or their myths. Twelve of these formations lay along the band of the ecliptic and these became the basis of astrology. [45] Many of the more prominent individual stars were also given names, particularly with Arabic or Latin designations. As well as certain constellations and the Sun itself, individual stars have their own myths. [46] To the Ancient Greeks, some "stars" known as planets (Greek πλανήτης (planētēs) meaning "wanderer. represented various important deities, from which the names of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were taken. [46. Uranus and Neptune were also Greek and Roman gods, but neither planet was known in Antiquity because of their low brightness. Their names were assigned by later astronomers. ) Circa 1600, the names of the constellations were used to name the stars in the corresponding regions of the sky. The German astronomer Johann Bayer created a series of star maps and applied Greek letters as designations to the stars in each constellation. Later a numbering system based on the star's right ascension was invented and added to John Flamsteed 's star catalogue in his book "Historia coelestis Britannica" the 1712 edition) whereby this numbering system came to be called Flamsteed designation or Flamsteed numbering. [47] 48] The only internationally recognized authority for naming celestial bodies is the International Astronomical Union (IAU. 49] The International Astronomical Union maintains the Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) 50] which catalogs and standardizes proper names for stars. A number of private companies sell names of stars, which the British Library calls an unregulated commercial enterprise. [51] 52] The IAU has disassociated itself from this commercial practice, and these names are neither recognized by the IAU, professional astronomers, nor the amateur astronomy community. [53] One such star-naming company is the International Star Registry, which, during the 1980s, was accused of deceptive practice for making it appear that the assigned name was official. This now-discontinued ISR practice was informally labeled a scam and a fraud, 54] 55] 56] 57] and the New York City Department of Consumer and Worker Protection issued a violation against ISR for engaging in a deceptive trade practice. [58] 59] Units of measurement Although stellar parameters can be expressed in SI units or CGS units, it is often most convenient to express mass, luminosity, and radii in solar units, based on the characteristics of the Sun. In 2015, the IAU defined a set of nominal solar values (defined as SI constants, without uncertainties) which can be used for quoting stellar parameters: The solar mass M ⊙ was not explicitly defined by the IAU due to the large relative uncertainty (10 −4) of the Newtonian gravitational constant G. However, since the product of the Newtonian gravitational constant and solar mass together (GM ⊙) has been determined to much greater precision, the IAU defined the nominal solar mass parameter to be: nominal solar mass parameter: GM ⊙ = 1. 3271244 × 10 20 m 3 s −2 [60] However, one can combine the nominal solar mass parameter with the most recent (2014) CODATA estimate of the Newtonian gravitational constant G to derive the solar mass to be approximately 1. 9885 × 10 30 kg. Although the exact values for the luminosity, radius, mass parameter, and mass may vary slightly in the future due to observational uncertainties, the 2015 IAU nominal constants will remain the same SI values as they remain useful measures for quoting stellar parameters. Large lengths, such as the radius of a giant star or the semi-major axis of a binary star system, are often expressed in terms of the astronomical unit —approximately equal to the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun (150 million km or approximately 93 million miles. In 2012, the IAU defined the astronomical constant to be an exact length in meters: 149, 597, 870, 700 m. [60] Formation and evolution Stellar evolution of low-mass (left cycle) and high-mass (right cycle) stars, with examples in italics Stars condense from regions of space of higher matter density, yet those regions are less dense than within a vacuum chamber. These regions—known as molecular clouds —consist mostly of hydrogen, with about 23 to 28 percent helium and a few percent heavier elements. One example of such a star-forming region is the Orion Nebula. [61] Most stars form in groups of dozens to hundreds of thousands of stars. [62] Massive stars in these groups may powerfully illuminate those clouds, ionizing the hydrogen, and creating H II regions. Such feedback effects, from star formation, may ultimately disrupt the cloud and prevent further star formation. All stars spend the majority of their existence as main sequence stars, fueled primarily by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium within their cores. However, stars of different masses have markedly different properties at various stages of their development. The ultimate fate of more massive stars differs from that of less massive stars, as do their luminosities and the impact they have on their environment. Accordingly, astronomers often group stars by their mass: 63] Very low mass stars, with masses below 0. 5 M ☉, are fully convective and distribute helium evenly throughout the whole star while on the main sequence. Therefore, they never undergo shell burning, never become red giants, which cease fusing and become helium white dwarfs and slowly cool after exhausting their hydrogen. [64] However, as the lifetime of 0. 5  M ☉ stars is longer than the age of the universe, no such star has yet reached the white dwarf stage. Low mass stars (including the Sun) with a mass between 0. 5  M ☉ and 1. 8–2. 5  M ☉ depending on composition, do become red giants as their core hydrogen is depleted and they begin to burn helium in core in a helium flash; they develop a degenerate carbon-oxygen core later on the asymptotic giant branch; they finally blow off their outer shell as a planetary nebula and leave behind their core in the form of a white dwarf. Intermediate-mass stars, between 1. 5  M ☉ and 5–10  M ☉, pass through evolutionary stages similar to low mass stars, but after a relatively short period on the red giant branch they ignite helium without a flash and spend an extended period in the red clump before forming a degenerate carbon-oxygen core. Massive stars generally have a minimum mass of 7–10  M ☉ (possibly as low as 5–6  M ☉. After exhausting the hydrogen at the core these stars become supergiants and go on to fuse elements heavier than helium. They end their lives when their cores collapse and they explode as supernovae. Star formation The formation of a star begins with gravitational instability within a molecular cloud, caused by regions of higher density—often triggered by compression of clouds by radiation from massive stars, expanding bubbles in the interstellar medium, the collision of different molecular clouds, or the collision of galaxies (as in a starburst galaxy. 65] 66] When a region reaches a sufficient density of matter to satisfy the criteria for Jeans instability, it begins to collapse under its own gravitational force. [67] Artist's conception of the birth of a star within a dense molecular cloud. As the cloud collapses, individual conglomerations of dense dust and gas form " Bok globules. As a globule collapses and the density increases, the gravitational energy converts into heat and the temperature rises. When the protostellar cloud has approximately reached the stable condition of hydrostatic equilibrium, a protostar forms at the core. [68] These pre-main-sequence stars are often surrounded by a protoplanetary disk and powered mainly by the conversion of gravitational energy. The period of gravitational contraction lasts about 10 to 15 million years. A cluster of approximately 500 young stars lies within the nearby W40 stellar nursery. Early stars of less than 2 M ☉ are called T Tauri stars, while those with greater mass are Herbig Ae/Be stars. These newly formed stars emit jets of gas along their axis of rotation, which may reduce the angular momentum of the collapsing star and result in small patches of nebulosity known as Herbig–Haro objects. [69] 70] These jets, in combination with radiation from nearby massive stars, may help to drive away the surrounding cloud from which the star was formed. [71] Early in their development, T Tauri stars follow the Hayashi track —they contract and decrease in luminosity while remaining at roughly the same temperature. Less massive T Tauri stars follow this track to the main sequence, while more massive stars turn onto the Henyey track. Most stars are observed to be members of binary star systems, and the properties of those binaries are the result of the conditions in which they formed. [72] A gas cloud must lose its angular momentum in order to collapse and form a star. The fragmentation of the cloud into multiple stars distributes some of that angular momentum. The primordial binaries transfer some angular momentum by gravitational interactions during close encounters with other stars in young stellar clusters. These interactions tend to split apart more widely separated (soft) binaries while causing hard binaries to become more tightly bound. This produces the separation of binaries into their two observed populations distributions. Main sequence Stars spend about 90% of their existence fusing hydrogen into helium in high-temperature and high-pressure reactions near the core. Such stars are said to be on the main sequence, and are called dwarf stars. Starting at zero-age main sequence, the proportion of helium in a star's core will steadily increase, the rate of nuclear fusion at the core will slowly increase, as will the star's temperature and luminosity. [73] The Sun, for example, is estimated to have increased in luminosity by about 40% since it reached the main sequence 4. 6 billion (4. 6 × 10 9) years ago. [74] Every star generates a stellar wind of particles that causes a continual outflow of gas into space. For most stars, the mass lost is negligible. The Sun loses 10 −14 M ☉ every year, 75] or about 0. 01% of its total mass over its entire lifespan. However, very massive stars can lose 10 −7 to 10 −5 M ☉ each year, significantly affecting their evolution. [76] Stars that begin with more than 50 M ☉ can lose over half their total mass while on the main sequence. [77] The time a star spends on the main sequence depends primarily on the amount of fuel it has and the rate at which it fuses it. The Sun is expected to live 10 billion (10 10) years. Massive stars consume their fuel very rapidly and are short-lived. Low mass stars consume their fuel very slowly. Stars less massive than 0. 25 M ☉, called red dwarfs, are able to fuse nearly all of their mass while stars of about 1 M ☉ can only fuse about 10% of their mass. The combination of their slow fuel-consumption and relatively large usable fuel supply allows low mass stars to last about one trillion (10 12) years; the most extreme of 0. 08 M ☉) will last for about 12 trillion years. Red dwarfs become hotter and more luminous as they accumulate helium. When they eventually run out of hydrogen, they contract into a white dwarf and decline in temperature. [64] However, since the lifespan of such stars is greater than the current age of the universe (13. 8 billion years) no stars under about 0. 85 M ☉ [78] are expected to have moved off the main sequence. Besides mass, the elements heavier than helium can play a significant role in the evolution of stars. Astronomers label all elements heavier than helium "metals" and call the chemical concentration of these elements in a star, its metallicity. A star's metallicity can influence the time the star takes to burn its fuel, and controls the formation of its magnetic fields, 79] which affects the strength of its stellar wind. [80] Older, population II stars have substantially less metallicity than the younger, population I stars due to the composition of the molecular clouds from which they formed. Over time, such clouds become increasingly enriched in heavier elements as older stars die and shed portions of their atmospheres. Post–main sequence As stars of at least 0. 4 M ☉ [4] exhaust their supply of hydrogen at their core, they start to fuse hydrogen in a shell outside the helium core. Their outer layers expand and cool greatly as they form a red giant. In about 5 billion years, when the Sun enters the helium burning phase, it will expand to a maximum radius of roughly 1 astronomical unit (150 million kilometres) 250 times its present size, and lose 30% of its current mass. [74] 81] As the hydrogen shell burning produces more helium, the core increases in mass and temperature. In a red giant of up to 2. 25 M ☉, the mass of the helium core becomes degenerate prior to helium fusion. Finally, when the temperature increases sufficiently, helium fusion begins explosively in what is called a helium flash, and the star rapidly shrinks in radius, increases its surface temperature, and moves to the horizontal branch of the HR diagram. For more massive stars, helium core fusion starts before the core becomes degenerate, and the star spends some time in the red clump, slowly burning helium, before the outer convective envelope collapses and the star then moves to the horizontal branch. [6] After the star has fused the helium of its core, the carbon product fuses producing a hot core with an outer shell of fusing helium. The star then follows an evolutionary path called the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) that parallels the other described red giant phase, but with a higher luminosity. The more massive AGB stars may undergo a brief period of carbon fusion before the core becomes degenerate. Massive stars During their helium-burning phase, a star of more than 9 solar masses expands to form first a blue and then a red supergiant. Particularly massive stars may evolve to a Wolf-Rayet star, characterised by spectra dominated by emission lines of elements heavier than hydrogen, which have reached the surface due to strong convection and intense mass loss. When helium is exhausted at the core of a massive star, the core contracts and the temperature and pressure rises enough to fuse carbon (see Carbon-burning process. This process continues, with the successive stages being fueled by neon (see neon-burning process) oxygen (see oxygen-burning process) and silicon (see silicon-burning process. Near the end of the star's life, fusion continues along a series of onion-layer shells within a massive star. Each shell fuses a different element, with the outermost shell fusing hydrogen; the next shell fusing helium, and so forth. [82] The final stage occurs when a massive star begins producing iron. Since iron nuclei are more tightly bound than any heavier nuclei, any fusion beyond iron does not produce a net release of energy. To a very limited degree such a process proceeds, but it consumes energy. Likewise, since they are more tightly bound than all lighter nuclei, such energy cannot be released by fission. [83] Collapse As a star's core shrinks, the intensity of radiation from that surface increases, creating such radiation pressure on the outer shell of gas that it will push those layers away, forming a planetary nebula. If what remains after the outer atmosphere has been shed is less than roughly 1. 4 M ☉, it shrinks to a relatively tiny object about the size of Earth, known as a white dwarf. White dwarfs lack the mass for further gravitational compression to take place. [84] The electron-degenerate matter inside a white dwarf is no longer a plasma, even though stars are generally referred to as being spheres of plasma. Eventually, white dwarfs fade into black dwarfs over a very long period of time. The Crab Nebula, remnants of a supernova that was first observed around 1050 AD In massive stars, fusion continues until the iron core has grown so large (more than 1. 4 M ☉) that it can no longer support its own mass. This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into its protons, forming neutrons, neutrinos, and gamma rays in a burst of electron capture and inverse beta decay. The shockwave formed by this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to explode in a supernova. Supernovae become so bright that they may briefly outshine the star's entire home galaxy. When they occur within the Milky Way, supernovae have historically been observed by naked-eye observers as "new stars" where none seemingly existed before. [85] A supernova explosion blows away the star's outer layers, leaving a remnant such as the Crab Nebula. [85] The core is compressed into a neutron star, which sometimes manifests itself as a pulsar or X-ray burster. In the case of the largest stars, the remnant is a black hole greater than 4 M ☉. [86] In a neutron star the matter is in a state known as neutron-degenerate matter, with a more exotic form of degenerate matter, QCD matter, possibly present in the core. Within a black hole, the matter is in a state that is not currently understood. The blown-off outer layers of dying stars include heavy elements, which may be recycled during the formation of new stars. These heavy elements allow the formation of rocky planets. The outflow from supernovae and the stellar wind of large stars play an important part in shaping the interstellar medium. [85] Binary stars The post–main-sequence evolution of binary stars may be significantly different from the evolution of single stars of the same mass. If stars in a binary system are sufficiently close, when one of the stars expands to become a red giant it may overflow its Roche lobe, the region around a star where material is gravitationally bound to that star, leading to transfer of material to the other. When the Roche lobe is violated, a variety of phenomena can result, including contact binaries, common-envelope binaries, cataclysmic variables, and type Ia supernovae. Distribution Stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are normally grouped into galaxies along with interstellar gas and dust. A typical galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars, and there are more than 2 trillion (10 12) galaxies. [87] Overall, there are as many as an estimated 1 × 10 24 stars [1] 2] more stars than all the grains of sand on planet Earth. 88] 89] 90] While it is often believed that stars only exist within galaxies, intergalactic stars have been discovered. [91] A multi-star system consists of two or more gravitationally bound stars that orbit each other. The simplest and most common multi-star system is a binary star, but systems of three or more stars are also found. For reasons of orbital stability, such multi-star systems are often organized into hierarchical sets of binary stars. [92] Larger groups called star clusters also exist. These range from loose stellar associations with only a few stars, up to enormous globular clusters with hundreds of thousands of stars. Such systems orbit their host galaxy. It has been a long-held assumption that the majority of stars occur in gravitationally bound, multiple-star systems. This is particularly true for very massive O and B class stars, where 80% of the stars are believed to be part of multiple-star systems. The proportion of single star systems increases with decreasing star mass, so that only 25% of red dwarfs are known to have stellar companions. As 85% of all stars are red dwarfs, most stars in the Milky Way are likely single from birth. [93] The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the Sun, is Proxima Centauri, which is 39. 9 trillion kilometres, or 4. 2 light-years. Travelling at the orbital speed of the Space Shuttle (8 kilometres per second—almost 30, 000 kilometres per hour) it would take about 150, 000 years to arrive. [94] This is typical of stellar separations in galactic discs. [95] Stars can be much closer to each other in the centres of galaxies and in globular clusters, or much farther apart in galactic halos. Due to the relatively vast distances between stars outside the galactic nucleus, collisions between stars are thought to be rare. In denser regions such as the core of globular clusters or the galactic center, collisions can be more common. [96] Such collisions can produce what are known as blue stragglers. These abnormal stars have a higher surface temperature than the other main sequence stars with the same luminosity of the cluster to which it belongs. [97] Characteristics Almost everything about a star is determined by its initial mass, including such characteristics as luminosity, size, evolution, lifespan, and its eventual fate. Age Most stars are between 1 billion and 10 billion years old. Some stars may even be close to 13. 8 billion years old—the observed age of the universe. The oldest star yet discovered, HD 140283, nicknamed Methuselah star, is an estimated 14. 46 0. 8 billion years old. [98] Due to the uncertainty in the value, this age for the star does not conflict with the age of the Universe, determined by the Planck satellite as 13. 799 0. 021. 98] 99] The more massive the star, the shorter its lifespan, primarily because massive stars have greater pressure on their cores, causing them to burn hydrogen more rapidly. The most massive stars last an average of a few million years, while stars of minimum mass (red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and can last tens to hundreds of billions of years. [100] 101] Lifetimes of stages of stellar evolution in billions of years [102] Initial Mass ( M ☉) Main Sequence Subgiant First Red Giant Core He Burning 1. 0 7. 41 2. 63 1. 45 0. 95 1. 5 1. 72 0. 41 0. 18 0. 26 2. 0 0. 67 0. 11 0. 04 0. 10 Chemical composition When stars form in the present Milky Way galaxy they are composed of about 71% hydrogen and 27% helium, 103] as measured by mass, with a small fraction of heavier elements. Typically the portion of heavy elements is measured in terms of the iron content of the stellar atmosphere, as iron is a common element and its absorption lines are relatively easy to measure. The portion of heavier elements may be an indicator of the likelihood that the star has a planetary system. [104] The star with the lowest iron content ever measured is the dwarf HE1327-2326, with only 1/200, 000th the iron content of the Sun. [105] By contrast, the super-metal-rich star μ Leonis has nearly double the abundance of iron as the Sun, while the planet-bearing star 14 Herculis has nearly triple the iron. [106] There also exist chemically peculiar stars that show unusual abundances of certain elements in their spectrum; especially chromium and rare earth elements. [107] Stars with cooler outer atmospheres, including the Sun, can form various diatomic and polyatomic molecules. [108] Diameter Some of the well-known stars with their apparent colors and relative sizes. Due to their great distance from the Earth, all stars except the Sun appear to the unaided eye as shining points in the night sky that twinkle because of the effect of the Earth's atmosphere. The Sun is also a star, but it is close enough to the Earth to appear as a disk instead, and to provide daylight. Other than the Sun, the star with the largest apparent size is R Doradus, with an angular diameter of only 0. 057 arcseconds. [109] The disks of most stars are much too small in angular size to be observed with current ground-based optical telescopes, and so interferometer telescopes are required to produce images of these objects. Another technique for measuring the angular size of stars is through occultation. By precisely measuring the drop in brightness of a star as it is occulted by the Moon (or the rise in brightness when it reappears) the star's angular diameter can be computed. [110] Stars range in size from neutron stars, which vary anywhere from 20 to 40 km (25 mi) in diameter, to supergiants like Betelgeuse in the Orion constellation, which has a diameter about 1, 000 times that of our sun. [111] 112] Betelgeuse, however, has a much lower density than the Sun. [113] Kinematics The motion of a star relative to the Sun can provide useful information about the origin and age of a star, as well as the structure and evolution of the surrounding galaxy. The components of motion of a star consist of the radial velocity toward or away from the Sun, and the traverse angular movement, which is called its proper motion. Radial velocity is measured by the doppler shift of the star's spectral lines, and is given in units of km/ s. The proper motion of a star, its parallax, is determined by precise astrometric measurements in units of milli- arc seconds (mas) per year. With knowledge of the star's parallax and its distance, the proper motion velocity can be calculated. Together with the radial velocity, the total velocity can be calculated. Stars with high rates of proper motion are likely to be relatively close to the Sun, making them good candidates for parallax measurements. [115] When both rates of movement are known, the space velocity of the star relative to the Sun or the galaxy can be computed. Among nearby stars, it has been found that younger population I stars have generally lower velocities than older, population II stars. The latter have elliptical orbits that are inclined to the plane of the galaxy. [116] A comparison of the kinematics of nearby stars has allowed astronomers to trace their origin to common points in giant molecular clouds, and are referred to as stellar associations. [117] Magnetic field The magnetic field of a star is generated within regions of the interior where convective circulation occurs. This movement of conductive plasma functions like a dynamo, wherein the movement of electrical charges induce magnetic fields, as does a mechanical dynamo. Those magnetic fields have a great range that extend throughout and beyond the star. The strength of the magnetic field varies with the mass and composition of the star, and the amount of magnetic surface activity depends upon the star's rate of rotation. This surface activity produces starspots, which are regions of strong magnetic fields and lower than normal surface temperatures. Coronal loops are arching magnetic field flux lines that rise from a star's surface into the star's outer atmosphere, its corona. The coronal loops can be seen due to the plasma they conduct along their length. Stellar flares are bursts of high-energy particles that are emitted due to the same magnetic activity. [118] Young, rapidly rotating stars tend to have high levels of surface activity because of their magnetic field. The magnetic field can act upon a star's stellar wind, functioning as a brake to gradually slow the rate of rotation with time. Thus, older stars such as the Sun have a much slower rate of rotation and a lower level of surface activity. The activity levels of slowly rotating stars tend to vary in a cyclical manner and can shut down altogether for periods of time. [119] During the Maunder Minimum, for example, the Sun underwent a 70-year period with almost no sunspot activity. Mass One of the most massive stars known is Eta Carinae, 120] which, with 100–150 times as much mass as the Sun, will have a lifespan of only several million years. Studies of the most massive open clusters suggests 150  M ☉ as an upper limit for stars in the current era of the universe. [121] This represents an empirical value for the theoretical limit on the mass of forming stars due to increasing radiation pressure on the accreting gas cloud. Several stars in the R136 cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud have been measured with larger masses, 122] but it has been determined that they could have been created through the collision and merger of massive stars in close binary systems, sidestepping the 150 M ☉ limit on massive star formation. [123] The reflection nebula NGC 1999 is brilliantly illuminated by V380 Orionis (center) a variable star with about 3. 5 times the mass of the Sun. The black patch of sky is a vast hole of empty space and not a dark nebula as previously thought. The first stars to form after the Big Bang may have been larger, up to 300 M ☉, 124] due to the complete absence of elements heavier than lithium in their composition. This generation of supermassive population III stars is likely to have existed in the very early universe (i. e., they are observed to have a high redshift) and may have started the production of chemical elements heavier than hydrogen that are needed for the later formation of planets and life. In June 2015, astronomers reported evidence for Population III stars in the Cosmos Redshift 7 galaxy at z = 6. 60. [125] 126] With a mass only 80 times that of Jupiter ( M J) 2MASS J0523-1403 is the smallest known star undergoing nuclear fusion in its core. [127] For stars with metallicity similar to the Sun, the theoretical minimum mass the star can have and still undergo fusion at the core, is estimated to be about 75 M J. [128] 129] When the metallicity is very low, however, the minimum star size seems to be about 8. 3% of the solar mass, or about 87 M J. [129] 130] Smaller bodies called brown dwarfs, occupy a poorly defined grey area between stars and gas giants. The combination of the radius and the mass of a star determines its surface gravity. Giant stars have a much lower surface gravity than do main sequence stars, while the opposite is the case for degenerate, compact stars such as white dwarfs. The surface gravity can influence the appearance of a star's spectrum, with higher gravity causing a broadening of the absorption lines. [35] Rotation The rotation rate of stars can be determined through spectroscopic measurement, or more exactly determined by tracking their starspots. Young stars can have a rotation greater than 100 km/s at the equator. The B-class star Achernar, for example, has an equatorial velocity of about 225 km/s or greater, causing its equator to bulge outward and giving it an equatorial diameter that is more than 50% greater than between the poles. This rate of rotation is just below the critical velocity of 300 km/s at which speed the star would break apart. [131] By contrast, the Sun rotates once every 25–35 days depending on latitude, 132] with an equatorial velocity of 1. 93 km/s. [133] A main sequence star 's magnetic field and the stellar wind serve to slow its rotation by a significant amount as it evolves on the main sequence. [134] Degenerate stars have contracted into a compact mass, resulting in a rapid rate of rotation. However they have relatively low rates of rotation compared to what would be expected by conservation of angular momentum —the tendency of a rotating body to compensate for a contraction in size by increasing its rate of spin. A large portion of the star's angular momentum is dissipated as a result of mass loss through the stellar wind. [135] In spite of this, the rate of rotation for a pulsar can be very rapid. The pulsar at the heart of the Crab nebula, for example, rotates 30 times per second. [136] The rotation rate of the pulsar will gradually slow due to the emission of radiation. [137] Temperature The surface temperature of a main sequence star is determined by the rate of energy production of its core and by its radius, and is often estimated from the star's color index. [138] The temperature is normally given in terms of an effective temperature, which is the temperature of an idealized black body that radiates its energy at the same luminosity per surface area as the star. Note that the effective temperature is only a representative of the surface, as the temperature increases toward the core. [139] The temperature in the core region of a star is several million  kelvins. [140] The stellar temperature will determine the rate of ionization of various elements, resulting in characteristic absorption lines in the spectrum. The surface temperature of a star, along with its visual absolute magnitude and absorption features, is used to classify a star (see classification below. 35] Massive main sequence stars can have surface temperatures of 50, 000 K. Smaller stars such as the Sun have surface temperatures of a few thousand K. Red giants have relatively low surface temperatures of about 3, 600 K; but they also have a high luminosity due to their large exterior surface area. [141] Radiation The energy produced by stars, a product of nuclear fusion, radiates to space as both electromagnetic radiation and particle radiation. The particle radiation emitted by a star is manifested as the stellar wind, 142] which streams from the outer layers as electrically charged protons and alpha and beta particles. Although almost massless, there also exists a steady stream of neutrinos emanating from the star's core. The production of energy at the core is the reason stars shine so brightly: every time two or more atomic nuclei fuse together to form a single atomic nucleus of a new heavier element, gamma ray photons are released from the nuclear fusion product. This energy is converted to other forms of electromagnetic energy of lower frequency, such as visible light, by the time it reaches the star's outer layers. The color of a star, as determined by the most intense frequency of the visible light, depends on the temperature of the star's outer layers, including its photosphere. [143] Besides visible light, stars also emit forms of electromagnetic radiation that are invisible to the human eye. In fact, stellar electromagnetic radiation spans the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from the longest wavelengths of radio waves through infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, to the shortest of X-rays, and gamma rays. From the standpoint of total energy emitted by a star, not all components of stellar electromagnetic radiation are significant, but all frequencies provide insight into the star's physics. Using the stellar spectrum, astronomers can also determine the surface temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and rotational velocity of a star. If the distance of the star is found, such as by measuring the parallax, then the luminosity of the star can be derived. The mass, radius, surface gravity, and rotation period can then be estimated based on stellar models. (Mass can be calculated for stars in binary systems by measuring their orbital velocities and distances. Gravitational microlensing has been used to measure the mass of a single star. [144] With these parameters, astronomers can also estimate the age of the star. [145] Luminosity The luminosity of a star is the amount of light and other forms of radiant energy it radiates per unit of time. It has units of power. The luminosity of a star is determined by its radius and surface temperature. Many stars do not radiate uniformly across their entire surface. The rapidly rotating star Vega, for example, has a higher energy flux (power per unit area) at its poles than along its equator. [146] Patches of the star's surface with a lower temperature and luminosity than average are known as starspots. Small, dwarf stars such as our Sun generally have essentially featureless disks with only small starspots. Giant stars have much larger, more obvious starspots, 147] and they also exhibit strong stellar limb darkening. That is, the brightness decreases towards the edge of the stellar disk. [148] Red dwarf flare stars such as UV Ceti may also possess prominent starspot features. [149] Magnitude The apparent brightness of a star is expressed in terms of its apparent magnitude. It is a function of the star's luminosity, its distance from Earth, the extinction effect of interstellar dust and gas, and the altering of the star's light as it passes through Earth's atmosphere. Intrinsic or absolute magnitude is directly related to a star's luminosity, and is what the apparent magnitude a star would be if the distance between the Earth and the star were 10 parsecs (32. 6 light-years. Number of stars brighter than magnitude Apparent magnitude Number  of stars [150] 0 4 1 15 2 48 3 171 513 5 1, 602 6 4, 800 7 14, 000 Both the apparent and absolute magnitude scales are logarithmic units: one whole number difference in magnitude is equal to a brightness variation of about 2. 5 times [151] the 5th root of 100 or approximately 2. 512. This means that a first magnitude star ( 1. 00) is about 2. 5 times brighter than a second magnitude ( 2. 00) star, and about 100 times brighter than a sixth magnitude star ( 6. 00. The faintest stars visible to the naked eye under good seeing conditions are about magnitude +6. On both apparent and absolute magnitude scales, the smaller the magnitude number, the brighter the star; the larger the magnitude number, the fainter the star. The brightest stars, on either scale, have negative magnitude numbers. The variation in brightness (Δ L) between two stars is calculated by subtracting the magnitude number of the brighter star ( m b) from the magnitude number of the fainter star ( m f) then using the difference as an exponent for the base number 2. 512; that is to say: Relative to both luminosity and distance from Earth, a star's absolute magnitude ( M) and apparent magnitude ( m) are not equivalent; 151] for example, the bright star Sirius has an apparent magnitude of −1. 44, but it has an absolute magnitude of +1. 41. The Sun has an apparent magnitude of −26. 7, but its absolute magnitude is only +4. 83. Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky as seen from Earth, is approximately 23 times more luminous than the Sun, while Canopus, the second brightest star in the night sky with an absolute magnitude of −5. 53, is approximately 14, 000 times more luminous than the Sun. Despite Canopus being vastly more luminous than Sirius, however, Sirius appears brighter than Canopus. This is because Sirius is merely 8. 6 light-years from the Earth, while Canopus is much farther away at a distance of 310 light-years. As of 2006, the star with the highest known absolute magnitude is LBV 1806-20, with a magnitude of −14. 2. This star is at least 5, 000, 000 times more luminous than the Sun. [152] The least luminous stars that are currently known are located in the NGC 6397 cluster. The faintest red dwarfs in the cluster were magnitude 26, while a 28th magnitude white dwarf was also discovered. These faint stars are so dim that their light is as bright as a birthday candle on the Moon when viewed from the Earth. [153] Classification Surface temperature ranges for different stellar classes [154] Class Sample star O 33, 000 K or more Zeta Ophiuchi B 10, 500–30, 000 K Rigel A 7, 500–10, 000 K Altair F 6, 000–7, 200 K Procyon A G 5, 500–6, 000 K Sun K 4, 000–5, 250 K Epsilon Indi M 2, 600–3, 850 K Proxima Centauri The current stellar classification system originated in the early 20th century, when stars were classified from A to Q based on the strength of the hydrogen line. [155] It was thought that the hydrogen line strength was a simple linear function of temperature. Instead, it was more complicated: it strengthened with increasing temperature, peaked near 9000 K, and then declined at greater temperatures. The classifications were since reordered by temperature, on which the modern scheme is based. [156] Stars are given a single-letter classification according to their spectra, ranging from type O, which are very hot, to M, which are so cool that molecules may form in their atmospheres. The main classifications in order of decreasing surface temperature are: O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. A variety of rare spectral types are given special classifications. The most common of these are types L and T, which classify the coldest low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Each letter has 10 sub-divisions, numbered from 0 to 9, in order of decreasing temperature. However, this system breaks down at extreme high temperatures as classes O0 and O1 may not exist. [157] In addition, stars may be classified by the luminosity effects found in their spectral lines, which correspond to their spatial size and is determined by their surface gravity. These range from 0 ( hypergiants) through III ( giants) to V (main sequence dwarfs) some authors add VII (white dwarfs. Main sequence stars fall along a narrow, diagonal band when graphed according to their absolute magnitude and spectral type. [157] The Sun is a main sequence G2V yellow dwarf of intermediate temperature and ordinary size. Additional nomenclature, in the form of lower-case letters added to the end of the spectral type to indicate peculiar features of the spectrum. For example, an " e " can indicate the presence of emission lines. m " represents unusually strong levels of metals, and " var " can mean variations in the spectral type. [157] White dwarf stars have their own class that begins with the letter D. This is further sub-divided into the classes DA, DB, DC, DO, DZ, and DQ, depending on the types of prominent lines found in the spectrum. This is followed by a numerical value that indicates the temperature. [158] Variable stars The asymmetrical appearance of Mira, an oscillating variable star. Variable stars have periodic or random changes in luminosity because of intrinsic or extrinsic properties. Of the intrinsically variable stars, the primary types can be subdivided into three principal groups. During their stellar evolution, some stars pass through phases where they can become pulsating variables. Pulsating variable stars vary in radius and luminosity over time, expanding and contracting with periods ranging from minutes to years, depending on the size of the star. This category includes Cepheid and Cepheid-like stars, and long-period variables such as Mira. [159] Eruptive variables are stars that experience sudden increases in luminosity because of flares or mass ejection events. [159] This group includes protostars, Wolf-Rayet stars, and flare stars, as well as giant and supergiant stars. Cataclysmic or explosive variable stars are those that undergo a dramatic change in their properties. This group includes novae and supernovae. A binary star system that includes a nearby white dwarf can produce certain types of these spectacular stellar explosions, including the nova and a Type 1a supernova. [6] The explosion is created when the white dwarf accretes hydrogen from the companion star, building up mass until the hydrogen undergoes fusion. [160] Some novae are also recurrent, having periodic outbursts of moderate amplitude. [159] Stars can also vary in luminosity because of extrinsic factors, such as eclipsing binaries, as well as rotating stars that produce extreme starspots. [159] A notable example of an eclipsing binary is Algol, which regularly varies in magnitude from 2. 1 to 3. 4 over a period of 2. 87 days. [161] Structure The interior of a stable star is in a state of hydrostatic equilibrium: the forces on any small volume almost exactly counterbalance each other. The balanced forces are inward gravitational force and an outward force due to the pressure gradient within the star. The pressure gradient is established by the temperature gradient of the plasma; the outer part of the star is cooler than the core. The temperature at the core of a main sequence or giant star is at least on the order of 10 7 K. The resulting temperature and pressure at the hydrogen-burning core of a main sequence star are sufficient for nuclear fusion to occur and for sufficient energy to be produced to prevent further collapse of the star. [162] 163] As atomic nuclei are fused in the core, they emit energy in the form of gamma rays. These photons interact with the surrounding plasma, adding to the thermal energy at the core. Stars on the main sequence convert hydrogen into helium, creating a slowly but steadily increasing proportion of helium in the core. Eventually the helium content becomes predominant, and energy production ceases at the core. Instead, for stars of more than 0. 4 M ☉, fusion occurs in a slowly expanding shell around the degenerate helium core. [164] In addition to hydrostatic equilibrium, the interior of a stable star will also maintain an energy balance of thermal equilibrium. There is a radial temperature gradient throughout the interior that results in a flux of energy flowing toward the exterior. The outgoing flux of energy leaving any layer within the star will exactly match the incoming flux from below. The radiation zone is the region of the stellar interior where the flux of energy outward is dependent on radiative heat transfer, since convective heat transfer is inefficient in that zone. In this region the plasma will not be perturbed, and any mass motions will die out. If this is not the case, however, then the plasma becomes unstable and convection will occur, forming a convection zone. This can occur, for example, in regions where very high energy fluxes occur, such as near the core or in areas with high opacity (making radiatative heat transfer inefficient) as in the outer envelope. [163] The occurrence of convection in the outer envelope of a main sequence star depends on the star's mass. Stars with several times the mass of the Sun have a convection zone deep within the interior and a radiative zone in the outer layers. Smaller stars such as the Sun are just the opposite, with the convective zone located in the outer layers. [165] Red dwarf stars with less than 0. 4 M ☉ are convective throughout, which prevents the accumulation of a helium core. [4] For most stars the convective zones will also vary over time as the star ages and the constitution of the interior is modified. [163] This diagram shows a cross-section of the Sun. The photosphere is that portion of a star that is visible to an observer. This is the layer at which the plasma of the star becomes transparent to photons of light. From here, the energy generated at the core becomes free to propagate into space. It is within the photosphere that sun spots, regions of lower than average temperature, appear. Above the level of the photosphere is the stellar atmosphere. In a main sequence star such as the Sun, the lowest level of the atmosphere, just above the photosphere, is the thin chromosphere region, where spicules appear and stellar flares begin. Above this is the transition region, where the temperature rapidly increases within a distance of only 100 km (62 mi. Beyond this is the corona, a volume of super-heated plasma that can extend outward to several million kilometres. [166] The existence of a corona appears to be dependent on a convective zone in the outer layers of the star. [165] Despite its high temperature, and the corona emits very little light, due to its low gas density. The corona region of the Sun is normally only visible during a solar eclipse. From the corona, a stellar wind of plasma particles expands outward from the star, until it interacts with the interstellar medium. For the Sun, the influence of its solar wind extends throughout a bubble-shaped region called the heliosphere. [167] Nuclear fusion reaction pathways Overview of the proton-proton chain The carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle A variety of nuclear fusion reactions take place in the cores of stars, that depend upon their mass and composition. When nuclei fuse, the mass of the fused product is less than the mass of the original parts. This lost mass is converted to electromagnetic energy, according to the mass–energy equivalence relationship E  =  mc 2. [3] The hydrogen fusion process is temperature-sensitive, so a moderate increase in the core temperature will result in a significant increase in the fusion rate. As a result, the core temperature of main sequence stars only varies from 4 million kelvin for a small M-class star to 40 million kelvin for a massive O-class star. [140] In the Sun, with a 10-million-kelvin core, hydrogen fuses to form helium in the proton–proton chain reaction: 168] 4 1 H → 2 2 H + 2 e. 2 ν e (2 x 0. 4 M eV) 2 e. 2 e − → 2 γ (2 x 1. 0 MeV) 2 1 H + 2 2 H → 2 3 He + 2 γ (2 x 5. 5 MeV) 2 3 He → 4 He + 2 1 H (12. 9 MeV) These reactions result in the overall reaction: 4 1 H → 4 He + 2e. 2γ + 2ν e (26. 7 MeV) where e + is a positron, γ is a gamma ray photon, ν e is a neutrino, and H and He are isotopes of hydrogen and helium, respectively. The energy released by this reaction is in millions of electron volts, which is actually only a tiny amount of energy. However enormous numbers of these reactions occur constantly, producing all the energy necessary to sustain the star's radiation output. In comparison, the combustion of two hydrogen gas molecules with one oxygen gas molecule releases only 5. 7 eV. Minimum stellar mass required for fusion Element Solar masses Hydrogen 0. 01 Helium 0. 4 Carbon 5 [169] Neon 8 In more massive stars, helium is produced in a cycle of reactions catalyzed by carbon called the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle. [168] In evolved stars with cores at 100 million kelvin and masses between 0. 5 and 10 M ☉, helium can be transformed into carbon in the triple-alpha process that uses the intermediate element beryllium: 168] 4 He + 4 He + 92 keV → 8* Be 4 He + 8* Be + 67 keV → 12* C 12* C → 12 C + γ + 7. 4 MeV For an overall reaction of: 3 4 He → 12 C + γ + 7. 2 MeV In massive stars, heavier elements can also be burned in a contracting core through the neon-burning process and oxygen-burning process. The final stage in the stellar nucleosynthesis process is the silicon-burning process that results in the production of the stable isotope iron-56. [168] Any further fusion would be an endothermic process that consumes energy, and so further energy can only be produced through gravitational collapse. The example below shows the amount of time required for a star of 20 M ☉ to consume all of its nuclear fuel. As an O-class main sequence star, it would be 8 times the solar radius and 62, 000 times the Sun's luminosity. [170] Fuel material Temperature (million kelvins) Density (kg/cm 3) Burn duration (τ in years) H 37 0. 0045 8. 1 million He 188 0. 97 1. 2 million C 870 170 976 Ne 1, 570 3, 100 0. 6 1, 980 5, 550 1. 25 S/Si 3, 340 33, 400 0. 0315 [171] See also References ^ a b Staff (2019. How Many Stars Are There In The Universe. European Space Agency. Retrieved 21 September 2019. ^ a b Marov, Mikhail Ya. (2015. The Structure of the Universe. The Fundamentals of Modern Astrophysics. pp. 279–294. doi: 10. 1007/978-1-4614-8730-2_10. ISBN   978-1-4614-8729-6. ^ a b Bahcall, John N. (June 29, 2000. How the Sun Shines. Nobel Foundation. 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ISBN   978-0-553-17521-9. External links Look up star in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stars. Kaler, James. "Portraits of Stars and their Constellations. University of Illinois. Retrieved 2010-08-20. "Query star by identifier, coordinates or reference code. SIMBAD. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-08-20. "How To Decipher Classification Codes. Astronomical Society of South Australia. Retrieved 2010-08-20. Prialnick, Dina; et al. "Stars: Stellar Atmospheres, Structure. Evolution. University of St. Andrews. Retrieved 2010-08-20.

Is the star in erath. I tried to be very optimistic to enjoy this movie but was not able continue after 20mins. am not saying like i hate this movie it just lacks the concept of animation films. nothing fun just a cartoon replica of bible story. What did the star spectrum tell us about the star. Who wrote the star spangled. I love this song. When ever i hear the “all the stars are closer” part i think of zendaya cuz it lowkey think it sounds like her her idk.

The starfish and the spider. When the Star Spangled Banner was made. What is the star of Ben Barnes. Dine From casual dining to world-class cuisine, The Star District has it all. 22 Restaurants 12 Sports Bars 8 Patios Artboard 1 Specials Dining Feb 23 Christopher Macchio of the New York Tenors Da Mario 11:00 am to 3:00 pm View All Restaurants Ascension Cane Rosso City Works Eatery & Pour House Concrete Cowboy Cow Tipping Creamery Cowboys Club crushcraft Thai Eats Da Mario Dee Lincoln Prime Freshii Heirloom Haul Howard Wangs Mi Cocina Neighborhood Services Nestlé Toll House Café and Red Mango Raising Canes Roti Grill Rush Bowls Sushi Marquee The Common Table The Edge Waterside Lounge Tri Tip Grill Trophy Park Tupelo Honey Southern Kitchen & Bar Wahlburgers Zizikis E-Newsletter Keep up with us Stay up-to-date with everything happening at The Star special offers, events and more.

The star wars trailer 2019. His vocal range is insane extremely talented, can't understand him but just listening to him is good. My love from the star. Briefly describe the startification of air. The Star (Malaysia) Type Daily newspaper Format Print, online Owner(s) Star Media Group Berhad (ROC 10894D) formerly known as Star Publications (Malaysia) Berhad) Editor Esther Ng Founded 9 September 1971 Language English Headquarters Jalan 16/11, 46350 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan Circulation 248, 413 (Daily Star) 246, 652 (Sunday Star) 105, 645 (Daily Star E-paper) 104, 804 (Sunday Star E-paper) Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations, Malaysia - July to December 2015 [1] 2] Website www. thestar The Star ( MYX: 6084) is an English-language newspaper in Malaysia. Based in Petaling Jaya, it was established in 1971 as a regional newspaper in Penang. It is the largest paid English newspaper in terms of circulation in Malaysia [3] according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations. [4] It has a daily circulation of about 250, 000 (as of January 2017) far eclipsing the circulation of its next-largest paid English-language competitor, the New Straits Times (who has a circulation of approximately 65, 000. The Star is a member of the Asia News Network. It is owned by the publicly listed Star Media Group. History [ edit] The daily newspaper was first published on 9 September 1971 as a regional newspaper based in Penang. [5] The STAR went into national circulation on 3 January 1976 when it set up its new office in Kuala Lumpur. In 1978, the newspaper headquarters was relocated to Kuala Lumpur. The Star continues to expand its wings over the years. In 1981, it moved its headquarters from Kuala Lumpur to Petaling Jaya [6] which is also its current premise to accommodate a growing number of staff and technology devices. In 1987, The Star was one of the newspapers whose publication licences were withdrawn in Operation Lalang. [7] 6] It resumed publication five months later in March 1988, but after its return, The Star lost its previous 'liberal flavour. 8] It was the first Malaysian paper to offer an online edition. [6] 9] The Star 's dominant position as Malaysia's leading English-language newspaper has, for decades, been of significant benefit to its major shareholder, the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) political party (which ruled from the independence of Malaya until 2018 as a junior member of the Barisan Nasional coalition. Between 1997 and 2007, it was estimated that the MCA's investment arm, Huaren Holdings, collected MYR270 million in dividends - almost exclusively from their 42% shareholding in the Star's parent company - with dividends peaking at MYR40 million per year between 2005 and 2007. Despite a significant portion of these dividends funding debts from their later acquisition of Nanyang Siang Pau, a total of MYR100 million was still paid out to the MCA between 2001 and 2007. [10] Editions [ edit] The Star (daily) and Sunday Star are published in five editions. Two editions cover the northern peninsular states of Penang, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan and northern Perak, while another two editions cover the rest of the country. As of March 2010, the newspaper has a separate Sarawak edition priced at RM1. 20. There are two main printing plants that publish four editions of The Star on a daily basis. The northern editions are printed at the Star Northern Hub in Bayan Lepas, Penang, while the other two editions are printed at the Star Media Hub in Bukit Jelutong, Shah Alam, Selangor. Features [ edit] The Star weekday paper is packaged as a 4-in-1 paper, comprising the Main Paper, StarBiz, Star2 and Star Metro. Naturally, this newspaper also contains classifieds. The Main Paper covers the latest in both local and international news while StarBiz offers a comprehensive coverage of business developments, market trends, financial reports and updates in the stock market. Star2 features articles on lifestyle, entertainment, health, parenting, social etiquette, science, environment, fashion, food, comics and many more. The contents published on the Star Metro varies by edition, covering news and events in a particular region covered by each edition. Weekly sections include: StarBytz (every Monday; formerly known as In-Tech) focuses on computers and information technology StarEducate (Sundays) features careers, school, exam tips, advice on furthering education, commentaries by renowned educationists and updates in the education industry Star Fit4Life (Sundays) focuses on various aspects of well-being, from medical research to treatments, fitness trends, diet and nutrition, mental health, ageing and public health issues, alternative therapy and healing methods Life Inspired (Sundays) a luxury-focused pull-out covering topics from art, architecture, travel, fashion, food and more. This section was launched in October 2013. [11] Dots (Sundays) News and articles sourced from international media partners covering a varied range of topics from politics and society to people. Provides a deeper insight into thoughts, senses and outlook The Star BizWeek is a weekly financial magazine published every Saturday that highlights issues, companies, personalities, developments, and stocks that are likely to make news in the week ahead F1F4 is a fortnightly pull-out published on alternate Mondays. It contains information about Mathematics and Science syllabus for Form One and Form Four. Stuff@school is a weekly pullout distributed every Monday to schools that subscribe to The Star. It features newsy articles, interviews, book reviews and short stories dedicated to teens. Star Metro is a pull-out featuring news and events from all of Malaysia and occasionally, abroad. Star Metro also features the classifieds. CarSifu is a pullout distributed every twice a month on alternating Thursdays that offers updates on the automobile scene. [12] now does video-based content with an investigative angle. Their work with the Predator in My Phone series led to the passing of the Sexual Offences Against Children Act 2017. They are currently working to unravel the student trafficking syndicate in Malaysia, featured in their series Student/Trafficked [13] Columnists [ edit] Notable columnists for The Star include Marina Mahathir, a socio-political activist and writer, Martin Khor (since 1978. 14] former head of the Third World Network, and law professor Shad Saleem Faruqi. [15] Tunku Abdul Rahman, the first Prime Minister and chairman of the paper's parent company from the 1977 to 1989, also contributed to the newspaper through his column Looking Back which was published every Monday from 1974 to 1989. His writings in the column, which consisted of his personal accounts in the ruling party in regards to seeking Malaysia's independence, were deemed to be influential and so closely associated with the paper that its name was often backronymed by some readers as Suara Tunku Abdul Rahman (English: the Voice of Tunku Abdul Rahman. 16] 17] 18] Ownership [ edit] The Star is a party-owned paper, associated with the former government of Malaysia. Since 1977, The Star has been effectively controlled by the Malaysian Chinese Association, the third-largest party in the opposition Barisan Nasional alliance [19] though it is part of the publicly listed Star Media Group ( MYX: 6084. The largest stake, at 42. 46% is held by the MCA; the three next-largest shareholders are Amanah Saham Bumiputera, a unit trust scheme exclusive to Bumiputera (15. 44. the Malaysian superannuation scheme, the Employees Provident Fund (5. 98% and Tabung Haji, the government-run hajj savings and investment fund (5. 42. 20] See also [ edit] List of newspapers in Malaysia References [ edit] External links [ edit] Official website.

This is a must see for the whole family. Moving, funny, and adventurous. A great cast with a great soundtrack and all the while portraying the greatest story ever told. The birth of a baby, that forever changed the world. See it with the family, see it with friends, and then see it again.
The starting line.
How did the Star Wars empire begin.
Copyright 1995- Star Media Group Berhad (10894D) Best viewed on Chrome browsers.
The star chamber.
Nominated for 1 Oscar. See more awards  » Edit Storyline Middle-aged Oscar winning actress Margaret Elliot - Maggie to those that know her - is a Hollywood has-been. Her life is in shambles. She clings to the hope of resurrecting her past movie stardom as a leading ingénue. No one will hire her, she's penniless with creditors selling off anything that she owns that is of monetary value, and she has no one to turn to that can see her through financially. She has in the past supported her sister and brother-in-law, who still want to use her as their meal ticket. Divorced from her actor husband, she shares joint custody of their teen-aged daughter Gretchen, from who Maggie tries to hide her problems. When it looks as if Maggie has hit rock bottom, Jim Johannsen re-enters her life. Jim, who once had the stage name Barry Lester, got his big break in Hollywood movies by Maggie. He came to the quick realization that he was neither good as an actor or that he wanted to do it as a profession. He now works as a boat parts supplier and mechanic. Jim... Written by Huggo Plot Summary, Add Synopsis Taglines: The story of a thought she was a star so high in the sky no man could touch her! Details Release Date: 11 December 1952 (USA) See more  » Company Credits Technical Specs Sound Mix: Mono (Western Electric Recording) See full technical specs  » Did You Know? Trivia Davis used the phrase, bless you. in the film as a term of endearment. In reality, she was making fun of Joan Crawford, who usually signed autographs that way and used the phrase to thank people. See more » Goofs When Gretchen changes direction on the boat for the second time, Margaret is knocked way over to the left by the sail. She turns around to laugh, but is shown seated on the far right. See more » Quotes [ to her Oscar statuette] Margaret Elliott: Come on, Oscar, let's you and me get drunk! See more » Connections Referenced in Hamlet  (2000) See more ».

Clearly this court is a total joke if he got that in there. Haaa... tepuk. The star news. Search Select Title... My Services Sign in. Who instituted the star chamber. It is real special. for the inspired speech about Christian faith in the era of globalisation. for animation itself. for the perspective, not new but in wise manner used, of the Birth of Jesus in the eyes of animals. for songs. and for humor. it represents one of source of hope in the time of political corecteness. because it reminds small, essential values. because it gives a touching - precise message about the fundamental importance of faith. and, sure, for the admirable courage to be a confession because, in the age of relativisation, The Star" becomes a honest remind of the basic Christian Truth.

What fuels the star castor. What size is the star Sirius. "The Star" is an American English-language animated movie from this year that premiered here very recently, so you could definitely say it is one for the holidays. It's not too long at under 1.5 hours, but features still a whole lot of known actors that you may have come across on other projects. Maybe you won't recognize their voices, maybe you will. But you sure will recognize their names. This film here takes us into the Bible by telling us about the nine months before the birth of the Christ as a bit of a fable with speaking animals and an ancient background as this one plays over 2 millenniums in the past. The good news is that I enjoyed almost all the animation aspects here. There was one especially beautiful shot that may have been among the greatest of the year when we see the humans and animals moving forward while also seeing the beautiful star-studded sky. The music was fine too overall with some beautiful songs.
But sadly, the film had also far too many mediocre and forgettable moments that made this one seem way too long for its own good and that is even more shocking as it really wasn't a very long film at all. It easily could have been kept at under an hour I believe. On the one hand, there were just far too many (animal) characters in here that had hardly no impact at all on the story. Quite a pity. They were included for one or two funny ( funny" moments and then disappeared as quickly as they appeared like the ones at the end at the location where Mary gives birth. And as for the approach to the comedy here, it was not as successful as I hoped. Here and there, there was a solid moment including a witty joke, but most of it was really just loud and over-the-top sadly and on a level where just the little ones would enjoy it. And this means quite something when I say or write it because it is a statement coming from somebody who is off the opinion that quality animated films are as much for grown-ups as they are for children. Anyway, the ending was somewhat better again and I liked how they included the subject or forgiveness with the two dogs, but also weren't afraid of killing off a really sinister character. By the way, the two dogs could really have their own movie as a sequel. They were one of the better components here.
All in all, however, I did not like the film as much as I hoped I would. Donkeys sure are the greatest thing ever (next to guinea-pigs) but the thing I found distracting here is that the German voice in the version I watched did not satisfy me at all and I wasn't too happy in general with the dubbing also for other characters, especially the animals. Let me add too that I am an entirely nonreligious atheist, so I won't go too much into detail about the biblical and more serious contents here and their accuracy. I would just say that the dramatic plot was never really as good as I wanted it to be. So yeah there are some glaring weaknesses here and it may not be the greatest effort by Oscar-nominated director Timothy Reckart at all. Then again, this may be more the two writers' fault than the director's. I for once can only say I am surprised how much attention this has received from the Annie Awards. An Oscar nomination seems possible, but I think it really isn't that good. Watch something else instead.



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